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                                 Pliocene Epoch
 
                   From 5.332 +/- 0.005 To 1.806 +/- 0.005 Ma
 
  Start Defined By:  Top of magnetic polarity chronozone C3r, ~100 kyr before 
     Thvera normal-polarity subchronozone (C3n.4n).  Calcareous nannofossils -- 
     near extinction level of Triquetrorhabdulus rugosus (base Zone CN10b) and 
     the lowest occurrence of Ceratolithus acutus.
  End Defined By:  Just above top of magnetic polarity chronozone C2n (Olduvai) 
     and the extinction level of calcareous nannofossil Discoaster brouweri 
     (base Zone CN13).  Above are lowest occurrence of calcareous nannofossil 
     medium Gephyrocapsa spp. and extinction level of planktonic foraminifer 
     Globigerinoides extremus.
 
  Start Based On:  Gradstein, Ogg, Smith, _A Geologic Time Scale 2004_
  End Based On:  Gradstein, Ogg, Smith, _A Geologic Time Scale 2004_
 
 -- Overlaps With --
  Australian Stage:     Mitchellian (10.5 - 5)
  Californian Stage:    Wheelerian  (1.9 - 0.01143)
  Californian Stage:    Delmontian  (7.5 - 2.9)
  Japanese Stage:       Yuian       (9.5 - 3.6)
  Japanese Stage:       Kechienjian (1.9 - 1.5)
  New Zealand Stage:    Kapitean    (6 - 4.8)
  New Zealand Stage:    Nukumaruan  (1.96 - 1.1)
  North American Stage: Hemphillian (9 - 4.75)
 
 -- A Substage of --
  Eon:              Phanerozoic (542 - -5.5012e-005)
  Era:              Cenozoic    (65.5 - -5.5012e-005)
  Period:           Neogene     (23.03 - -5.5012e-005)
  Informal Sub-era: Tertiary    (65.5 - 1.806)
 
 -- Preceeded By --
  Epoch:     Miocene      (23.03 - 5.332)
  Sub-Epoch: Late Miocene (11.608 - 5.332)
  ICS Stage: Messinian    (7.246 - 5.332)
 
 -- Followed By --
  Epoch:                Pleistocene       (1.806 - 0.01143)
  ICS Stage:            Early Pleistocene (1.806 - 0.781)
  Australian Stage:     Werrikooian       (1.806 - 1)
  Informal Period:      Pleistogene       (1.806 - -5.5012e-005)
  Informal Sub-era:     Quaternary        (1.806 - -5.5012e-005)
  North American Stage: Irvingtonian      (1.806 - 0.3)
 
 -- Contains the Following Sub-Epochs --
  Sub-Epoch: Early Pliocene (5.332 - 3.6)
  Sub-Epoch: Late Pliocene  (3.6 - 1.806)
 

This page was automatically generated from the GeoWhen database (version 1.1.0).  Please read the introduction regarding the accuracy and reliability of this information.  Comments, corrections, and additions can be sent to geowhen@robertrohde.com.  References to published academic literature are preferred.

Introduction

Geologic Timeline
(No Stages)

Geologic Timeline
(With Stages)

A-Z Stage List

Regional Information

Download Files


2003-2005 GeoWhen Database
Prepared By Robert A. Rohde


This page was last updated on Tuesday, January 18, 2005.