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style='tab-interval:21.25pt'> <div class=WordSection1> <div id=mainContent> <h3><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:blue'>GSSP for <span class=SpellE>Toarcian</span> Stage</span></h3> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=EN-US><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:red'>Definition:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:red;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>The base of the <span class=SpellE>Toarcian</span> Stage (lower Jurassic) is defined at the bed 15e in Ponta do <span class=SpellE>Trovo</span>, <span class=SpellE>Peniche</span>, Portugal. This level is characterized by mass occurrence of <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Dactylioceras</i></span> ammonite species, namely by the first occurrence (FO) of <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Dactylioceras</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'> (<span class=SpellE>Eodactylites</span>) simplex</i> co-occurring with <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>D. (E.) <span class=SpellE>pseudocommune</span> </i>and<i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> D. (E.) <span class=SpellE>polymorphum</span></i>. This species define the lower part of the <span class=SpellE>Polymorphum</span> Zone, <span class=SpellE>Mirabile</span> Subzone. </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:red;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; mso-fareast-language:FR'>The ammonite association of <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Dactylioceras</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'> (<span class=SpellE>Eodactylites</span>)</i> ssp. and other species such as </span><span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:red;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB'>Protogrammoceras</span></i></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";color:red;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'> (<span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Paltarpites</i></span>) cf. <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>paltum</i></span>, <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Lioceratoides</i></span> <span class=SpellE>aff</span>. <span class=SpellE><span class=GramE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>balinense</i></span></span> and <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Tiltoniceras</i></span> <span class=SpellE>aff</span>. <span class=SpellE><span class=GramE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>capillatum</i></span></span> </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:red;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:FR'>is particularly significant for the boundary definition. Secondary biostratigraphic events are represented by a</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:red;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB'> succession of calcareous <span class=SpellE>nannofossil</span> first occurrences observed across the <span class=SpellE>Pliensbachian</span>/<span class=SpellE>Toarcian</span> boundary, namely the FOs of <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Lotharingius</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'> <span class=SpellE>velatus</span></i>, <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Biscutum</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'> <span class=SpellE>intermedium</span> </i>(uppermost <span class=SpellE>Pliensbachian</span>), <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Discorhabdus</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> <span class=SpellE>ignotus</span></i> and <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>Carinolithus</i></span><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'> <span class=SpellE>superbus</span></i> (lower <span class=SpellE>Toarcian</span>) are recorded in <span class=SpellE>Peniche</span> as well as in other expanded <span class=SpellE>Tethyan</span> sections. Secondary global marker includes <span class=GramE>a</span> <sup>87</sup>Sr/<sup>86</sup>Sr ratio of 0.70706 (2</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:red; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>s</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:red;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>) at the base of the <span class=SpellE>Toarcian</span>.</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:red'> </span><span lang=EN-US style='color:red'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family: "Songti SC Regular"'>Location:<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>The GSSP section at Ponta do <span class=SpellE>Trovo</span> is located near the <span class=SpellE>Peniche</span> town (<span class=SpellE>Peniche</span> peninsula), approximately 80 km north of Lisbon (Portugal) at a latitude of 3922 15  N, and a longitude of 923 07  W.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph; mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span class=SpellE><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Songti SC Regular"'>Sedimentology</span></b></span><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family: "Songti SC Regular"'>:<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph; mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>The base of the <span class=SpellE>Toarcian</span> Stage at Ponta do <span class=SpellE>Trovo</span>, <span class=SpellE>Peniche</span>, is the uppermost part of the <span class=SpellE>Lemede</span> Fm corresponding to the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Couches de passage </i>(Transition beds). These beds are <span class=SpellE><span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>bioturbated</span></span><span style='mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>, centimetre-thick marlstones enriched in <span class=SpellE>bioclasts</span> alternating with <span class=SpellE>decimeter</span>-thick <span class=SpellE>bioclastic</span> <span class=SpellE>limestones</span></span> with a <span class=SpellE>wackestone</span> texture. The highest bed of the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Couches de passage</i> (15e) has yielded a characteristic association of <span class=SpellE>dactylioceratids</span> that is classically interpreted as marking the beginning of the <span class=SpellE>Toarcian</span>. As a consequence, the <span class=SpellE>chronostratigraphical</span> boundary at the base of bed 15e is distinct from the lithologic boundary, this latter being situated between the <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Couches de passage</i> (top of bed 15e, topmost part of <span class=SpellE>Lemede</span> Fm) and the base of the <span class=SpellE>Cabo</span> <span class=SpellE>Carvoeiro</span> Fm (bed 16a), which is represented by decimetre-thick alternations of marls and centimetre-thick <span class=SpellE>limestones</span>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph; mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family: "Songti SC Regular"'>Primary Markers:<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph; mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>The GSSP is marked by the FO of the ammonite <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>D. (E.) simplex</i> co-occurring with <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>D. (E.) <span class=SpellE>pseudocommune</span> </i>and<i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'> D. (E.) <span class=SpellE>polymorphum</span></i>.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph; mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family: "Songti SC Regular"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph; mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family: "Songti SC Regular"'>Secondary Markers: </span></b><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;mso-fareast-language: FR'>Ammonite association of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>D. (<span class=SpellE>Eodactylites</span>)</i> ssp. and other species e.g. </span><span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Protogrammoceras</span></i></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'> (<span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Paltarpites</i></span>) cf. <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>paltum</i></span>, <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Lioceratoides</i></span> <span class=SpellE>aff</span>. <span class=SpellE><span class=GramE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>balinense</i></span></span> and <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Tiltoniceras</i></span> <span class=SpellE>aff</span>. <span class=SpellE><span class=GramE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>capillatum</i></span></span> </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; mso-fareast-language:FR'>is particularly significant for the boundary definition. A</span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'> succession of calcareous <span class=SpellE>nannofossil</span> first occurrences includes the FOs of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>L. <span class=SpellE>velatus</span></i>, <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>B. <span class=SpellE>intermedium</span> </i>(uppermost <span class=SpellE>Pliensbachian</span>), <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>D. <span class=SpellE>ignotus</span></i> and <i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>C. <span class=SpellE>superbus</span></i> (lower <span class=SpellE>Toarcian</span>). A prominent (~20 ) negative excursion of </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:Symbol;mso-bidi-font-family: Arial;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>d</span><sup><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family: "Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>13</span></sup><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>C measured on bulk rock, belemnites and brachiopod calcite is also recorded just above the boundary level.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph; mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family: "Songti SC Regular"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph; mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family: "Songti SC Regular"'>Strontium Isotopes<span class=GramE>:<span style='font-weight:normal'>( </span></span></span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family:"Songti SC Regular"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph; mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Analysis of belemnites yields a calcite <sup>87</sup>Sr/<sup>86</sup>Sr ratio for the boundary level of 0.70706.( <o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph; mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family: "Songti SC Regular"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph; mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span class=SpellE><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Songti SC Regular"'>Magnetostratigraphy</span></b></span><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family: "Songti SC Regular"'>:</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Songti SC Regular"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph; mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span class=SpellE><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Magnetostratigraphy</span></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'> was not conclusive in the <span class=SpellE>Peniche</span> section. A very precise correlation with the <span class=SpellE>Almonacid</span> de la Cuba section (Iberian Range, Spain), based upon ammonite and <span class=SpellE>Sr</span> isotopes, shows that the <span class=SpellE>Pliensbachian</span>/<span class=SpellE>Toarcian</span> boundary nearly corresponds to the transition between a normal and a reversed polarity.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph; mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph; mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family: "Songti SC Regular"'>Correlation Events:<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph; mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; mso-fareast-language:FR'>Ammonite association of <i style='mso-bidi-font-style: normal'>D. (<span class=SpellE>Eodactylites</span>)</i> ssp. and other species e.g. </span><span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'>Protogrammoceras</span></i></span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB'> (<span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Paltarpites</i></span>) cf. <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>paltum</i></span>, <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Lioceratoides</i></span> <span class=SpellE>aff</span>. <span class=SpellE><span class=GramE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>balinense</i></span></span> and <span class=SpellE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>Tiltoniceras</i></span> <span class=SpellE>aff</span>. <span class=SpellE><span class=GramE><i style='mso-bidi-font-style:normal'>capillatum</i></span></span> </span><span lang=EN-GB style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-ansi-language:EN-GB; mso-fareast-language:FR'>is particularly significant for the boundary definition.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph; mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family: "Songti SC Regular"'><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph; mso-pagination:none;mso-layout-grid-align:none;text-autospace:none'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";mso-fareast-font-family: "Songti SC Regular"'>Notes on Derivation of Age:<o:p></o:p></span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='text-align:justify;text-justify:inter-ideograph'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Correlation to the Karoo volcanic rocks provided absolute age. <span class=SpellE>Cyclostratigraphy</span> was performed on the basal <span class=SpellE>Toarcian</span> of <span class=SpellE>Peniche</span> section.<o:p></o:p></span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US><o:p>&nbsp;</o:p></span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=EN-US><br> <br> <a href="index.html">Back to GSSP Table</a><o:p></o:p></span></p> </div> </div> <!-- --> </body> </html>