<html> <head> <meta http-equiv=Content-Type content="text/html; charset=unicode"> <meta name=Generator content="Microsoft Word 12 (filtered)"> <style> <!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:[SO; panose-1:2 1 6 0 3 1 1 1 1 1;} @font-face {font-family:"Cambria Math"; panose-1:2 4 5 3 5 4 6 3 2 4;} @font-face {font-family:"\@[SO"; panose-1:2 1 6 0 3 1 1 1 1 1;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:[SO;} h3 {mso-style-link:"h 3 Char"; margin-right:0cm; margin-left:0cm; font-size:13.5pt; font-family:[SO; font-weight:bold;} h4 {mso-style-link:"h 4 Char"; margin-right:0cm; margin-left:0cm; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:[SO; font-weight:bold;} a:link, span.MsoHyperlink {color:blue; text-decoration:underline;} a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed {color:purple; text-decoration:underline;} p {margin-right:0cm; margin-left:0cm; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:[SO;} span.3Char {mso-style-name:"h 3 Char"; mso-style-link:"h 3"; font-family:[SO; font-weight:bold;} span.4Char {mso-style-name:"h 4 Char"; mso-style-link:"h 4"; font-family:"Cambria","serif"; font-weight:bold;} .MsoChpDefault {font-size:10.0pt;} @page WordSection1 {size:595.3pt 841.9pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt;} div.WordSection1 {page:WordSection1;} --> </style> <!-- --> </head> <body lang=ZH-CN link=blue vlink=purple> <div class=WordSection1> <div id=mainContent> <h3><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:blue'>GSSP for Serravallian Stage</span></h3> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:red'>&nbsp;</span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:red'>Definition:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:red'>The base of the Serravallian Stage is defined at the base of the Blue Clay Formation (i.e. top of the &quot;transitional&quot; bed of the uppermost Globigerina Limestone) in the Ras il Pellegrin Section, Fomm Ir-Rih Bay, Malta, Europe. The GSSP coincides with the end of the major Mi-3b global cooling step in the oxygen isotopes and reflects a major increase in Antarctic ice volume. The GSSP level has an astronomical age of 13.82 Ma. </span></p> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellpadding=0> <tr> <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Location:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>The Ras il Pellegrin section is located some 20 km west of Valetta town and exposed in coastal cliffs along the Fomm Ir-Rih Bay on the west coast of Malta at a latitude of 3554 50&quot; North, and a longitude of 1420 10&quot; East. </span></p> </td> <td valign=bottom style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'></td> </tr> </table> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>&nbsp;</span></p> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellpadding=0> <tr> <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Sedimentology:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>The Ras il Pellegrin section is located in the SW facing cliffs on the NE side of Fomm Ir-Rih Bay. The section contains the middle Globigerina Limestone up to the Uper Coralline Limestone. A transitional bed separates the yellowish marly limestones of the Globigerina Limestone from the softer grayish clayey marls of the Blue Clay. The Blue Clay reaches a thickness of less than 70m. It has a distinct pattern of alternating homogeneous grey and white coloured marls. The GSSP is at the base of the Blue Clay Formation (i.e. top of the &quot;transitional&quot; bed of the uppermost Globigerina Limestone). </span></p> </td> <td valign=bottom style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'></td> </tr> </table> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>&nbsp;</span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Primary Markers:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Oxygen Isotopes</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'> The GSSP coincides with the end of the major Mi-3b global cooling step in the oxygen isotopes and reflects a major increase in Antarctic ice volume. </span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Secondary Markers:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Foraminifera:</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'> The GSSP is 0.5m below the acme end of <i>Globigerina</i> cf. <i>quinqueloba</i>.<br> <b>Nannoplankton:</b> The GSSP slightly predates the L(C)O of the calcareous nannofossil <i>Sphenolithus heteromorphus</i>, dated astronomically at 13.654 Ma, and falls within the younger part of Chron C5ACn. The GSSP postdates the FCO of <i>Helicosphaera walbersdorfensis</i>.<br> <b>Paleomagnetics:</b> The formation boundary between the Globigerina Limestone and the Blue Clay and therefore the Serravallian GSSP falls within Chron C5ACn. </span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Correlation Events:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Oxygen-isotopic event (global cooling episode) Mi3b; near calcareous nannofossil LAD of<i>Sphenolithus heteromorphus</i> </span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Other Locations around the World:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>The FCO of <i>Helicosphaera walbersdorfensis</i> is considered a reliable biostratigraphic marker event of regional importance for the Mediterranean middle Miocene. In the low-latitude open ocean the calcareous nannofossil events <i>Sphenolithus. heteromorphus</i> and <i>Cyclicargolithus floridanus</i> LCOs occur above the oxygen isotope event Mi-3b as recorded in the Mediterranean, although the astronomical age for the <i>S. heteromorphus</i> L(C)O seems slightly younger at Ceara Rise (13.523 Ma; Backman and Raffi, 1997) than in the Mediterranean (13.654 Ma; Abels et al., 2005). The GSSP corresponds approximately to the Barstovian 2 to 3 Subage boundary in North America (Woodburne and Swisher, 1995; Alroy, 2002). The boundary falls within the younger part of Chron C5ACn (Fig. 9) (Abels et al., 2005) and supposedly coincides with sequence boundary TB2.5. </span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Notes on Derivation of Age:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Astronomical cycles in sediments </span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>References:</span></h4> <p style='margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Abels, H.A., F. J. Hilgen, W. Krijgsman, R. W. Kruk, I. Raffi, E. Turco, and W. J. Zachariasse, 2005. Long-period orbital control on middle Miocene global cooling: Integrated stratigraphy and astronomical tuning of the Blue Clay Formation on Malta. Paleoceanography, 20, PA4012, doi: 10.1029/2004PA001129.</span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>&nbsp;</span></p> <p style='margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'><a href="Serravallian.pdf">Hilgen, F. J., Abels, H. A., Iaccarino, S., Krijgsman, W., Raffi, I., Sprovieri, R., Turco, E., Zachariasse, W. J., 2009. The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Serravallian Stage (Middle Miocene). Episodes, 32/3, 152 - 166.</a></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>&nbsp;</span></p> <p style='margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Backman, J., and I. Raffi, 1997. Calibration of Miocene nannofossil events to orbitally-tuned cyclostratigraphies from Ceara Rise. Proc. ODP, Sci. Res., 154, 83-99.</span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=EN-US><br> <br> <a href="index.html">Back to GSSP Table</a></span></p> </div> </div> <!-- --> </body> </html>