<html> <head> <meta http-equiv=Content-Type content="text/html; charset=unicode"> <meta name=Generator content="Microsoft Word 12 (filtered)"> <style> <!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:[SO; panose-1:2 1 6 0 3 1 1 1 1 1;} @font-face {font-family:"Cambria Math"; panose-1:2 4 5 3 5 4 6 3 2 4;} @font-face {font-family:"\@[SO"; panose-1:2 1 6 0 3 1 1 1 1 1;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:[SO;} h3 {mso-style-link:"h 3 Char"; margin-right:0cm; margin-left:0cm; font-size:13.5pt; font-family:[SO; font-weight:bold;} h4 {mso-style-link:"h 4 Char"; margin-right:0cm; margin-left:0cm; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:[SO; font-weight:bold;} p.MsoHeader, li.MsoHeader, div.MsoHeader {mso-style-link:"u w Char"; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center; layout-grid-mode:char; border:none; padding:0cm; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:[SO;} p.MsoFooter, li.MsoFooter, div.MsoFooter {mso-style-link:"u Char"; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; layout-grid-mode:char; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:[SO;} a:link, span.MsoHyperlink {color:blue; text-decoration:underline;} a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed {color:purple; text-decoration:underline;} p {margin-right:0cm; margin-left:0cm; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:[SO;} span.3Char {mso-style-name:"h 3 Char"; mso-style-link:"h 3"; font-family:[SO; font-weight:bold;} span.4Char {mso-style-name:"h 4 Char"; mso-style-link:"h 4"; font-family:"Cambria","serif"; font-weight:bold;} span.Char {mso-style-name:"u w Char"; mso-style-link:u w; font-family:[SO;} span.Char0 {mso-style-name:"u Char"; mso-style-link:u; font-family:[SO;} .MsoChpDefault {font-size:10.0pt;} /* Page Definitions */ @page WordSection1 {size:595.3pt 841.9pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt;} div.WordSection1 {page:WordSection1;} --> </style> <!-- --> </head> <body lang=ZH-CN link=blue vlink=purple> <div class=WordSection1> <div id=mainContent> <h3><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:blue'>GSSP for Givetian Stage</span></h3> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:red'>&nbsp;</span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:red'>Definition:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:red'>The GSSP for the Givetian Stage is placed at the base of Bed 123 in a section at Jebel Mech Irdane in the Tafilalt of Morocco. The Eifelian-Givetian boundary coincides with the level at which conodont <i>Polygnathus pseudofoliatus</i> changes to <i>Polygnathus hemiansatus</i>. The boundary corresponds closely with the base of the goniatite <i>Maenioceras</i> Stufe used as a Middle Devonian division, and the entry of the dacryoconarid <i>Nowakia otomari</i>. </span></p> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellpadding=0> <tr> <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Location:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>The GSSP is located at Jebel Mech Irdane, 25 km SSW of Erfoud and 12km SW of Rissani, Morocco. 1:100 000 Carte du Maroc, Feuille NH-30-XX-2, Erfoud, Lambert's coordinates: x = 599 2, y = 470 6. The locality is about 6 km from the metalled Msissi road west of Rissani and easily reached by four-wheel-drive vehicles. The GSSP is at the base of Bed 123 in the succession. </span></p> </td> <td valign=bottom style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'></td> </tr> </table> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>&nbsp;</span></p> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellpadding=0> <tr> <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Sedimentology:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>The ridge of Jebel Mech Irdane is 4 km long and exposes a full and fossiliferous succession from the Emsian to the Frasnian. The GSSP section consists mainly of pelagic calcilutites and micrites with black shales at the Kacak Event level. The Kacak Event or <i>otomari</i> or <i>rouvillei</i> Event is a widespread hypoxic sedimentary perturbation near the Eifelian - Givetian Boundary. </span></p> </td> <td valign=bottom style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'></td> </tr> </table> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>&nbsp;</span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Primary Markers:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>The Eifelian-Givetian boundary coincides with the level (Bed 123) at which conodont <i>Polygnathus pseudofoliatus</i> changes to <i>Polygnathus hemiansatus</i>. </span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Secondary Markers:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Goniatites:</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'><br> The base of the Maenioceras Stufe lies only fractionally below the GSSP. </span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Correlation Events:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Conodont FAD <i>Polygnathus hemiansatus</i> </span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Other Locations around the World:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><i><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Polygnathus hemiansatus</span></i><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'> can be recognized in the Cantabrian Mountains of Spain, in the Montagne Noir, France, in the Ardennes of Belgium, and the Rhenish and Eifel Mountains of Germany. </span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>References:</span></h4> <p style='margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'><a href="Givetian.pdf">Walliser, O. H., Bultynck, P., Weddige, K., Becker, R. T., and House, M. R., 1995. Definition of the Eifelian-Givetian Stage Boundary. Episodes 18/3, p. 107 - 115.</a></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=EN-US><br> <br> <a href="index.html">Back to GSSP Table</a></span></p> </div> </div> <!-- --> </body> </html>