<html> <head> <meta http-equiv=Content-Type content="text/html; charset=unicode"> <meta name=Generator content="Microsoft Word 12 (filtered)"> <style> <!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:[SO; panose-1:2 1 6 0 3 1 1 1 1 1;} @font-face {font-family:"Cambria Math"; panose-1:2 4 5 3 5 4 6 3 2 4;} @font-face {font-family:"\@[SO"; panose-1:2 1 6 0 3 1 1 1 1 1;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:[SO;} h3 {mso-style-link:"h 3 Char"; margin-right:0cm; margin-left:0cm; font-size:13.5pt; font-family:[SO; font-weight:bold;} h4 {mso-style-link:"h 4 Char"; margin-right:0cm; margin-left:0cm; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:[SO; font-weight:bold;} a:link, span.MsoHyperlink {color:blue; text-decoration:underline;} a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed {color:purple; text-decoration:underline;} p {margin-right:0cm; margin-left:0cm; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:[SO;} span.3Char {mso-style-name:"h 3 Char"; mso-style-link:"h 3"; font-family:[SO; font-weight:bold;} span.4Char {mso-style-name:"h 4 Char"; mso-style-link:"h 4"; font-family:"Cambria","serif"; font-weight:bold;} .MsoChpDefault {font-size:10.0pt;} @page WordSection1 {size:595.3pt 841.9pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt;} div.WordSection1 {page:WordSection1;} --> </style> <!-- --> </head> <body lang=ZH-CN link=blue vlink=purple> <div class=WordSection1> <div id=mainContent> <h3><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:blue'>GSSP for Changhsingian Stage</span></h3> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:red'>&nbsp;</span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:red'>Definition:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:red'>The Base of the Changhsingian Stage is defined at the base of Bed 4a-2, 88 cm above the base of the Changxing Limestone at the Meishan D Section, just above a flooding surface marking the second parasequence in the Changxing Limestone. The GSSP coincides with the FAD of the conodont species <i>Clarkina wangi</i> within the lineage from <i>Clarkina longicuspidata</i> to <i>Clarkina wangi</i>. </span></p> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellpadding=0> <tr> <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Location:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>The section is located at the Meishan Section D, Changxing County, Zhejiang Province between Nanjing and Shanghai, China at a latitude of 314'55&quot;N and a longitude of 11942'22.9&quot;E and is freely accessible and well protected. </span></p> </td> <td valign=bottom style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'></td> </tr> </table> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>&nbsp;</span></p> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellpadding=0> <tr> <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Sedimentology:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>The exposure at the Meishan D section contains only the uppermost part of the Longtan Formation. These beds include earthy yellow, calcareous siltstone and mudstone with horizontal beds of increasing thickness that contain ammonoids and brachiopods. This bed appears to be conformable with the overlying Baoqing Member of the Changxing Limestone.<br> The lowest bed (Bed 2) of the Changxing Limestone at section D, which is represented by dark grey, thick-bedded silty wackestone, appears to form the upper part of a cycle or parasequence.<br> Bed 3 contains greyish black calcareous mudstone and thin-bedded argillaceous mudstone that may represent the flooding unit of a second parasequence in the section.<br> Beds 4 and 5 include thin to medium bedded wackestone and represent the regressive portion of this second parasequence. </span></p> </td> <td valign=bottom style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'></td> </tr> </table> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>&nbsp;</span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Primary Markers:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>The base of the Changhsingian Stage is defined at the FAD of the conodont species <i>Clarkina wangi</i> within the lineage from <i>Clarkina longicuspidata</i> to <i>Clarkina wangi</i> at the base of Bed 4a-2 </span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Secondary Markers:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Ammonites</span></b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'><br> The ammonoid <i>Sinoceltites</i> has its first occurrence in the same bed as <i>Clarkina wangi</i>. The first occurrence of the ammonoid <i>Tapashanites</i> is only 42 cm above the GSSP.<br> <b>Fusulinaceans</b><br> <i>Palaeofusulina</i> aff. <i>sinensis</i> has its first appearance together with <i>Clarkina wangi</i> in Bed 4a-2. </span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Correlation Events:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Conodont FAD <i>Clarkina wangi</i> </span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Notes on Derivation of Age:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Permian-Carboniferous time scale is derived from calibrating a master composite section to selected radiometric ages <br> <br> <b>Outcrop Images:</b><br> <br> </span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>References:</span></h4> <p style='margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'><a href="Changhsingian.pdf">Jin, Y., Wang, Y., Henderson, C., Wardlaw, B. R., Shen, S., and Cao, C., 2006. The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of Changhsingian Stage (Upper Permian). Episodes 29/3, P. 175 - 182.</a></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=EN-US><br> <br> <a href="index.html">Back to GSSP Table</a></span></p> </div> </div> <!-- --> </body> </html>