<html> <head> <meta http-equiv=Content-Type content="text/html; charset=unicode"> <meta name=Generator content="Microsoft Word 12 (filtered)"> <style> <!-- /* Font Definitions */ @font-face {font-family:[SO; panose-1:2 1 6 0 3 1 1 1 1 1;} @font-face {font-family:"Cambria Math"; panose-1:2 4 5 3 5 4 6 3 2 4;} @font-face {font-family:Cambria; panose-1:2 4 5 3 5 4 6 3 2 4;} @font-face {font-family:"\@[SO"; panose-1:2 1 6 0 3 1 1 1 1 1;} /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:[SO;} h3 {mso-style-link:"h 3 Char"; margin-right:0cm; margin-left:0cm; font-size:13.5pt; font-family:[SO; font-weight:bold;} h4 {mso-style-link:"h 4 Char"; margin-right:0cm; margin-left:0cm; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:[SO; font-weight:bold;} p.MsoHeader, li.MsoHeader, div.MsoHeader {mso-style-link:"u w Char"; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; text-align:center; layout-grid-mode:char; border:none; padding:0cm; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:[SO;} p.MsoFooter, li.MsoFooter, div.MsoFooter {mso-style-link:"u Char"; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; layout-grid-mode:char; font-size:9.0pt; font-family:[SO;} a:link, span.MsoHyperlink {color:blue; text-decoration:underline;} a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed {color:purple; text-decoration:underline;} p {margin-right:0cm; margin-left:0cm; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:[SO;} span.3Char {mso-style-name:"h 3 Char"; mso-style-link:"h 3"; font-family:[SO; font-weight:bold;} span.4Char {mso-style-name:"h 4 Char"; mso-style-link:"h 4"; font-family:"Cambria","serif"; font-weight:bold;} p.msochpdefault, li.msochpdefault, div.msochpdefault {mso-style-name:msochpdefault; margin-right:0cm; margin-left:0cm; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:[SO;} span.Char {mso-style-name:"u w Char"; mso-style-link:u w; font-family:[SO;} span.Char0 {mso-style-name:"u Char"; mso-style-link:u; font-family:[SO;} .MsoChpDefault {font-size:10.0pt;} /* Page Definitions */ @page WordSection1 {size:595.3pt 841.9pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt;} div.WordSection1 {page:WordSection1;} --> </style> <!-- --> </head> <body lang=ZH-CN link=blue vlink=purple> <div class=WordSection1> <div id=mainContent> <h3><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:blue'>GSSP for Carnian Stage</span></h3> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"; color:red'>&nbsp;</span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:red'>Definition:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";color:red'>The GSSP for the base of the Carnian Stage is defined on the north face of the Cordevole Valley, on the southern slopes of the crest separating the Badia/Abtei and the Cordevole valleys, (46 31' 37&quot;N, 11 55' 49&quot;E) at an elevation of 1980 m, approximately 4.7 km south of San Cassiano/St. Kassian in the Dolomites (Southern Alps). The GSSP boundary is located at the base of bed SW4, 45 m above the base of the San Cassiano Fm. </span></p> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellpadding=0> <tr> <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Location:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>On the north face of the Cordevole Valley, on the southern slopes of the crest separating the Badia/Abtei and the Cordevole valleys, (46 31' 37&quot;N, 11 55' 49&quot;E) at an elevation of 1980 m, approximately 4.7 km south of San Cassiano/St. Kassian in the Dolomites (Southern Alps). </span></p> </td> <td valign=bottom style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'></td> </tr> </table> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>&nbsp;</span></p> <table class=MsoNormalTable border=0 cellpadding=0> <tr> <td style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Sedimentology:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>The section consists of hemipelagites and thin turbidite beds (both siliciclastic and carbonate intraclastic), deposited below storm wave-base with a high but variable sediment accumulation rate (San Cassiano Fm.).</span></p> </td> <td valign=bottom style='padding:.75pt .75pt .75pt .75pt'></td> </tr> </table> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>&nbsp;</span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Primary Markers:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>FAD of the ammonoids <i>Daxatina canadensis</i> (Whiteaves).</span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Secondary Markers:</span></h4> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif";font-weight:normal'>FAD of the conodont <i>Paragondolella polygnathiformis</i> (Budurov and Stefanov), appearing 70 cm above the first occurrence of <i>Daxatina canadensis</i> and at the base of a long normal-polarity magnetic zone (S2n) in close proximity to the boundary.</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><b><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Radiometric Dating:</span></b></p> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'><br> <br> <b>Stable Carbon Isotopes:</b><br> <br> </span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Correlation Events:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>FAD of the ammonoid <i>Daxatina canadensis</i>; just below FO of conodont <i>Paragondolella polygnathiformis</i> and base of normal-polarity magnetic zone S2n </span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Other Locations around the World:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>&nbsp;</span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>Notes on Derivation of Age:</span></h4> <p class=MsoNormal style='margin-bottom:12.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>The GSSP is one ammonite subzone just above a level dated at 237.77 0.14 Ma.</span></p> <h4><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>References:</span></h4> <p style='margin-left:36.0pt;text-indent:-36.0pt'><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'><a href="Carnian.pdf">Mietto, P., Manfrin, S., Preto, N., et al., 2012. The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Carnian Stage (Late Triassic) at Prati Di Stuores/Stuores Wiesen Section (Southern Alps, NE Italy). Episodes, 35(3): 414-430.</a></span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'>&nbsp;</span></p> <p class=MsoNormal><span lang=EN-US style='font-family:"Arial","sans-serif"'><br> <a href="index.html">Back to GSSP Table</a></span></p> </div> </div> <!-- --> </body> </html>